INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD

IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement

IAS 39 was adopted by the European Commission by Regulation (1126/2008/EC) and amended by the following regulations:

  • Regulation (1274/2008/EC) – IAS 1,

  • Regulation (53/2009/EC) – Puttable Financial Instruments and Obligations Arising on Liquidation, Amendments to IAS 32 and IAS 1,

  • Regulation (70/2009/EC) – Improvements to IFRSs,

  • Regulation (494/2009/EC) – Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements, Amendments to IAS 27,

  • Regulation (495/2009/EC) – Revised IFRS 3 Business Combinations,

  • Regulation (824/2009/EC) – Reclassification of Financial Assets: Effective Date and Transition, Amendments to IAS 39,

  • Regulation (839/2009/EC) – Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement: Eligible Hedged Items, Amendments to IAS 39,

  • Regulation (1171/2009/EC) – Embedded Derivatives, Amendments to IFRIC 9 and IAS 39,

  • Regulation (243/2010/EU) – Improvements to IFRSs,

  • Regulation (149/2011/EU) – Improvements to IFRSs,

  • Regulation (1254/2012/EU) – IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements,

  • Regulation (1254/2012/EU) – IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements,

  • Regulation (1255/2012/EU) – IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement,

  • Regulation (1174/2013/EU) – Investment Entities, Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 12 and IAS 27,

  • Regulation (1375/2013/EU) – Novation of Derivatives and Continuation of Hedge Accounting, Amendments to IAS 39,

  • Regulation (EU) 2015/28 – Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2010–2012 Cycle,

  • Regulation (EU) 2016/1905 – IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers,

  • Regulation (EU) 2016/2067 – IFRS 9 Financial Instruments,

  • Regulation (EU) 2017/1986 – IFRS 16 Leases,

  • Regulation (EU) 2020/34 – Interest Rate Benchmark Reform, Amendments to IFRS 7, IFRS 9 and IAS 39,

  • Regulation (EU) 2021/25 – Interest Rate Benchmark Reform – Phase 2, Amendments to IFRS 9, IAS 39, IFRS 7, IFRS 4 and IFRS 16.

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Scope

2.This Standard shall be applied by all entities to all financial instruments within the scope of IFRS 9 Financial Instruments if, and to the extent that:

  1. IFRS 9 permits the hedge accounting requirements of this Standard to be applied; and

  2. the financial instrument is part of a hedging relationship that qualifies for hedge accounting in accordance with this Standard.

2A.2A The impairment requirements of this Standard shall be applied to those rights that IFRS 15 specifies are accounted for in accordance with this Standard for the purposes of recognising impairment losses.

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Definitions

8.The terms defined in IFRS 13, IFRS 9 and IAS 32 are used in this Standard with the meanings specified in Appendix A of IFRS 13, Appendix A of IFRS 9 and paragraph 11 of IAS 32. IFRS 13, IFRS 9 and IAS 32 define the following terms:

  • amortised cost of a financial asset or financial liability

  • derecognition

  • derivative

  • effective interest method

  • effective interest rate

  • equity instrument

  • fair value

  • financial asset

  • financial instrument

  • financial liability

    and provide guidance on applying those definitions.

9.The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:

  • Definitions relating to hedge accounting

    A firm commitment is a binding agreement for the exchange of a specified quantity of resources at a specified price on a specified future date or dates.

    A forecast transaction is an uncommitted but anticipated future transaction.

    A hedging instrument is a designated derivative or (for a hedge of the risk of changes in foreign currency exchange rates only) a designated non-derivative financial asset or non-derivative financial liability whose fair value or cash flows are expected to offset changes in the fair value or cash flows of a designated hedged item (paragraphs 72-77 and Appendix A paragraphs AG94-AG97 elaborate on the definition of a hedging instrument).

    A hedged item is an asset, liability, firm commitment, highly probable forecast transaction or net investment in a foreign operation that (a) exposes the entity to risk of changes in fair value or future cash flows and (b) is designated as being hedged (paragraphs 78-84 and Appendix A paragraphs AG98-AG101 elaborate on the definition of hedged items).

    Hedge effectiveness is the degree to which changes in the fair value or cash flows of the hedged item that are attributable to a hedged risk are offset by changes in the fair value or cash flows of the hedging instrument (see Appendix A paragraphs AG105-AG113).

Hedging

71.If an entity applies IFRS 9 and has not chosen as its accounting policy to continue to apply the hedge accounting requirements of this Standard (see paragraph 7.2.19 of IFRS 9), it shall apply the hedge accounting requirements in Chapter 6 of IFRS 9. However, for a fair value hedge of the interest rate exposure of a portion of a portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities, an entity may, in accordance with paragraph 6.1.3 of IFRS 9, apply the hedge accounting requirements in this Standard instead of those in IFRS 9. In that case the entity must also apply the specific requirements for fair value hedge accounting for a portfolio hedge of interest rate risk (see paragraphs 81A, 89A and AG114–AG132).

Hedging instruments

Qualifying instruments

72.This standard does not restrict the circumstances in which a derivative may be designated as a hedging instrument provided the conditions in paragraph 88 are met, except for some written options (see Appendix A paragraph AG94). However, a non-derivative financial asset or non-derivative financial liability may be designated as a hedging instrument only for a hedge of a foreign currency risk.

73.For hedge accounting purposes, only instruments that involve a party external to the reporting entity (ie external to the group or individual entity that is being reported on) can be designated as hedging instruments. Although individual entities within a consolidated group or divisions within an entity may enter into hedging transactions with other entities within the group or divisions within the entity, any such intragroup transactions are eliminated on consolidation. Therefore, such hedging transactions do not qualify for hedge accounting in the consolidated financial statements of the group. However, they may qualify for hedge accounting in the individual or separate financial statements of individual entities within the group provided that they are external to the individual entity that is being reported on.

Designation of hedging instruments

74.There is normally a single fair value measure for a hedging instrument in its entirety, and the factors that cause changes in fair value are co-dependent. Thus, a hedging relationship is designated by an entity for a hedging instrument in its entirety. The only exceptions permitted are:

  1. separating the intrinsic value and time value of an option contract and designating as the hedging instrument only the change in intrinsic value of an option and excluding change in its time value; and

  2. separating the interest element and the spot price of a forward contract.

These exceptions are permitted because the intrinsic value of the option and the premium on the forward can generally be measured separately. A dynamic hedging strategy that assesses both the intrinsic value and time value of an option contract can qualify for hedge accounting.

75.A proportion of the entire hedging instrument, such as 50 per cent of the notional amount, may be designated as the hedging instrument in a hedging relationship. However, a hedging relationship may not be designated for only a portion of the time period during which a hedging instrument remains outstanding.

76.A single hedging instrument may be designated as a hedge of more than one type of risk provided that (a) the risks hedged can be identified clearly; (b) the effectiveness of the hedge can be demonstrated; and (c) it is possible to ensure that there is specific designation of the hedging instrument and different risk positions.

77.Two or more derivatives, or proportions of them (or, in the case of a hedge of currency risk, two or more non-derivatives or proportions of them, or a combination of derivatives and non-derivatives or proportions of them), may be viewed in combination and jointly designated as the hedging instrument, including when the risk(s) arising from some derivatives offset(s) those arising from others. However, an interest rate collar or other derivative instrument that combines a written option and a purchased option does not qualify as a hedging instrument if it is, in effect, a net written option (for which a net premium is received). Similarly, two or more instruments (or proportions of them) may be designated as the hedging instrument only if none of them is a written option or a net written option.

Hedged items

Qualifying items

78.A hedged item can be a recognised asset or liability, an unrecognised firm commitment, a highly probable forecast transaction or a net investment in a foreign operation. The hedged item can be (a) a single asset, liability, firm commitment, highly probable forecast transaction or net investment in a foreign operation, (b) a group of assets, liabilities, firm commitments, highly probable forecast transactions or net investments in foreign operations with similar risk characteristics or (c) in a portfolio hedge of interest rate risk only, a portion of the portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities that share the risk being hedged.

80.For hedge accounting purposes, only assets, liabilities, firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions that involve a party external to the entity can be designated as hedged items. It follows that hedge accounting can be applied to transactions between entities in the same group only in the individual or separate financial statements of those entities and not in the consolidated financial statements of the group, except for the consolidated financial statements of an investment entity, as defined in IFRS 10, where transactions between an investment entity and its subsidiaries measured at fair value through profit or loss will not be eliminated in the consolidated financial statements. In accordance with IAS 21, foreign exchange rate gains and losses on intragroup monetary items are not fully eliminated on consolidation when the intragroup monetary item is transacted between two group entities that have different functional currencies. In addition, the foreign currency risk of a highly probable forecast intragroup transaction may qualify as a hedged item in consolidated financial statements provided that the transaction is denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity entering into that transaction and the foreign currency risk will affect consolidated profit or loss.

Designation of financial items as hedged items

81.If the hedged item is a financial asset or financial liability, it may be a hedged item with respect to the risks associated with only a portion of its cash flows or fair value (such as one or more selected contractual cash flows or portions of them or a percentage of the fair value) provided that effectiveness can be measured. For example, an identifiable and separately measurable portion of the interest rate exposure of an interest-bearing asset or interest-bearing liability may be designated as the hedged risk (such as a risk-free interest rate or benchmark interest rate component of the total interest rate exposure of a hedged financial instrument).

81A.In a fair value hedge of the interest rate exposure of a portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities (and only in such a hedge), the portion hedged may be designated in terms of an amount of a currency (e.g. an amount of dollars, euro, pounds or rand) rather than as individual assets (or liabilities). Although the portfolio may, for risk management purposes, include assets and liabilities, the amount designated is an amount of assets or an amount of liabilities. Designation of a net amount including assets and liabilities is not permitted. The entity may hedge a portion of the interest rate risk associated with this designated amount. For example, in the case of a hedge of a portfolio containing prepayable assets, the entity may hedge the change in fair value that is attributable to a change in the hedged interest rate on the basis of expected, rather than contractual, repricing dates. [...].

Designation of non-financial items as hedged items

82.If the hedged item is a non-financial asset or non-financial liability, it shall be designated as a hedged item (a) for foreign currency risks, or (b) in its entirety for all risks, because of the difficulty of isolating and measuring the appropriate portion of the cash flows or fair value changes attributable to specific risks other than foreign currency risks.

Designation of groups of items as hedged items

83.Similar assets or similar liabilities shall be aggregated and hedged as a group only if the individual assets or individual liabilities in the group share the risk exposure that is designated as being hedged. Furthermore, the change in fair value attributable to the hedged risk for each individual item in the group shall be expected to be approximately proportional to the overall change in fair value attributable to the hedged risk of the group of items.

84.Because an entity assesses hedge effectiveness by comparing the change in the fair value or cash flow of a hedging instrument (or group of similar hedging instruments) and a hedged item (or group of similar hedged items), comparing a hedging instrument with an overall net position (e.g. the net of all fixed rate assets and fixed rate liabilities with similar maturities), rather than with a specific hedged item, does not qualify for hedge accounting.

Hedge accounting

85.Hedge accounting recognises the offsetting effects on profit or loss of changes in the fair values of the hedging instrument and the hedged item.

86.Hedging relationships are of three types:

  1. fair value hedge: a hedge of the exposure to changes in fair value of a recognised asset or liability or an unrecognised firm commitment, or an identified portion of such an asset, liability or firm commitment, that is attributable to a particular risk and could affect profit or loss;

  2. cash flow hedge: a hedge of the exposure to variability in cash flows that (i) is attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised asset or liability (such as all or some future interest payments on variable rate debt) or a highly probable forecast transaction and (ii) could affect profit or loss;

  3. hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation as defined in IAS 21.

87.A hedge of the foreign currency risk of a firm commitment may be accounted for as a fair value hedge or as a cash flow hedge.

88.A hedging relationship qualifies for hedge accounting under paragraphs 89–102 if, and only if, all of the following conditions are met.

  1. At the inception of the hedge there is formal designation and documentation of the hedging relationship and the entity's risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. That documentation shall include identification of the hedging instrument, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged and how the entity will assess the hedging instrument's effectiveness in offsetting the exposure to changes in the hedged item's fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk.

  2. The hedge is expected to be highly effective (see Appendix A paragraphs AG105-AG113) in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk, consistently with the originally documented risk management strategy for that particular hedging relationship.

  3. For cash flow hedges, a forecast transaction that is the subject of the hedge must be highly probable and must present an exposure to variations in cash flows that could ultimately affect profit or loss.

  4. The effectiveness of the hedge can be reliably measured, ie the fair value or cash flows of the hedged item that are attributable to the hedged risk and the fair value of the hedging instrument can be reliably measured.

  5. The hedge is assessed on an ongoing basis and determined actually to have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which the hedge was designated.

Fair value hedges

89.If a fair value hedge meets the conditions in paragraph 88 during the period, it shall be accounted for as follows:

  1. the gain or loss from remeasuring the hedging instrument at fair value (for a derivative hedging instrument) or the foreign currency component of its carrying amount measured in accordance with IAS 21 (for a non-derivative hedging instrument) shall be recognised in profit or loss; and

  2. the gain or loss on the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk shall adjust the carrying amount of the hedged item and be recognised in profit or loss. This applies if the hedged item is otherwise measured at cost. Recognition of the gain or loss attributable to the hedged risk in profit or loss applies if the hedged item is a financial asset measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2 A of IFRS 9.

89A.For a fair value hedge of the interest rate exposure of a portion of a portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities (and only in such a hedge), the requirement in paragraph 89(b) may be met by presenting the gain or loss attributable to the hedged item either:

  1. in a single separate line item within assets, for those repricing time periods for which the hedged item is an asset; or

  2. in a single separate line item within liabilities, for those repricing time periods for which the hedged item is a liability.

The separate line items referred to in (a) and (b) above shall be presented next to financial assets or financial liabilities. Amounts included in these line items shall be removed from the statement of financial position when the assets or liabilities to which they relate are derecognised.

90.If only particular risks attributable to a hedged item are hedged, recognised changes in the fair value of the hedged item unrelated to the hedged risk are recognised as set out in paragraph 5.7.1 of IFRS 9.

91.An entity shall discontinue prospectively the hedge accounting specified in paragraph 89 if:

  1. the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised. For this purpose, the replacement or rollover of a hedging instrument into another hedging instrument is not an expiration or termination if such replacement or rollover is part of the entity’s documented hedging strategy. Additionally, for this purpose there is not an expiration or termination of the hedging instrument if:

    1. as a consequence of laws or regulations or the introduction of laws or regulations, the parties to the hedging instrument agree that one or more clearing counterparties replace their original counterparty to become the new counterparty to each of the parties. For this purpose, a clearing counterparty is a central counterparty (sometimes called a ‘clearing organisation’ or ‘clearing agency’) or an entity or entities, for example, a clearing member of a clearing organisation or a client of a clearing member of a clearing organisation, that are acting as counterparty in order to effect clearing by a central counterparty. However, when the parties to the hedging instrument replace their original counterparties with different counterparties this paragraph shall apply only if each of those parties effects clearing with the same central counterparty.

    2. other changes, if any, to the hedging instrument are limited to those that are necessary to effect such a replacement of the counterparty. Such changes are limited to those that are consistent with the terms that would be expected if the hedging instrument were originally cleared with the clearing counterparty. These changes include changes in the collateral requirements, rights to offset receivables and payables balances, and charges levied.

  2. the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting in paragraph 88; or

  3. the entity revokes the designation.

92.Any adjustment arising from paragraph 89(b) to the carrying amount of a hedged financial instrument for which the effective interest method is used (or, in the case of a portfolio hedge of interest rate risk, to the separate line item in the statement of financial position described in paragraph 89A) shall be amortised to profit or loss. Amortisation may begin as soon as an adjustment exists and shall begin no later than when the hedged item ceases to be adjusted for changes in its fair value attributable to the risk being hedged. The adjustment is based on a recalculated effective interest rate at the date amortisation begins. However, if, in the case of a fair value hedge of the interest rate exposure of a portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities (and only in such a hedge), amortising using a recalculated effective interest rate is not practicable, the adjustment shall be amortised using a straight- line method. The adjustment shall be amortised fully by maturity of the financial instrument or, in the case of a portfolio hedge of interest rate risk, by expiry of the relevant repricing time period.

93.When an unrecognised firm commitment is designated as a hedged item, the subsequent cumulative change in the fair value of the firm commitment attributable to the hedged risk is recognised as an asset or liability with a corresponding gain or loss recognised in profit or loss (see paragraph 89(b)). The changes in the fair value of the hedging instrument are also recognised in profit or loss.

94.When an entity enters into a firm commitment to acquire an asset or assume a liability that is a hedged item in a fair value hedge, the initial carrying amount of the asset or liability that results from the entity meeting the firm commitment is adjusted to include the cumulative change in the fair value of the firm commitment attributable to the hedged risk that was recognised in the statement of financial position.

Cash flow hedges

95.If a cash flow hedge meets the conditions in paragraph 88 during the period, it shall be accounted for as follows:

  1. the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge (see paragraph 88) shall be recognised in other comprehensive income; and

  2. the ineffective portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument shall be recognised in profit or loss.

96.More specifically, a cash flow hedge is accounted for as follows:

  1. the separate component of equity associated with the hedged item is adjusted to the lesser of the following (in absolute amounts):

    1. the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument from inception of the hedge; and

    2. the cumulative change in fair value (present value) of the expected future cash flows on the hedged item from inception of the hedge;

  2. any remaining gain or loss on the hedging instrument or designated component of it (that is not an effective hedge) is recognised in profit or loss; and

  3. if an entity's documented risk management strategy for a particular hedging relationship excludes from the assessment of hedge effectiveness a specific component of the gain or loss or related cash flows on the hedging instrument (see paragraphs 74, 75 and 88(a)), that excluded component of gain or loss is recognised in accordance with paragraph 5.7.1 of IFRS 9.

97.If a hedge of a forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a financial asset or a financial liability, the associated gains or losses that were recognised in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 95 shall be reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1 (as revised in 2007)) in the same period or periods during which the hedged forecast cash flows affect profit or loss (such as in the periods that interest income or interest expense is recognised). However, if an entity expects that all or a portion of a loss recognised in other comprehensive income will not be recovered in one or more future periods, it shall reclassify into profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment the amount that is not expected to be recovered.

98.If a hedge of a forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or a non-financial liability, or a forecast transaction for a non-financial asset or non-financial liability becomes a firm commitment for which fair value hedge accounting is applied, then the entity shall adopt (a) or (b) below:

  1. It reclassifies the associated gains and losses that were recognised in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 95 to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1 (revised 2007)) in the same period or periods during which the asset acquired or liability assumed affects profit or loss (such as in the periods that depreciation expense or cost of sales is recognised). However, if an entity expects that all or a portion of a loss recognised in other comprehensive income will not be recovered in one or more future periods, it shall reclassify from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment the amount that is not expected to be recovered.

  2. It removes the associated gains and losses that were recognised in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 95, and includes them in the initial cost or other carrying amount of the asset or liability.

99.An entity shall adopt either (a) or (b) in paragraph 98 as its accounting policy and shall apply it consistently to all hedges to which paragraph 98 relates.

100.For cash flow hedges other than those covered by paragraphs 97 and 98, amounts that had been recognised in other comprehensive income shall be reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1 (revised 2007)) in the same period or periods during which the hedged forecast cash flows affect profit or loss (for example, when a forecast sale occurs).

101.In any of the following circumstances an entity shall discontinue prospectively the hedge accounting specified in paragraphs 95–100:

  1. The hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised. In this case, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument that has been recognised in other comprehensive income from the period when the hedge was effective (see paragraph 95(a)) shall remain separately in equity until the forecast transaction occurs. When the transaction occurs, paragraph 97, 98 or 100 applies. For the purpose of this subparagraph, the replacement or rollover of a hedging instrument into another hedging instrument is not an expiration or termination if such replacement or rollover is part of the entity’s documented hedging strategy. Additionally, for the purpose of this subparagraph there is not an expiration or termination of the hedging instrument if:

    1. as a consequence of laws or regulations or the introduction of laws or regulations, the parties to the hedging instrument agree that one or more clearing counterparties replace their original counterparty to become the new counterparty to each of the parties. For this purpose, a clearing counterparty is a central counterparty (sometimes called a ‘clearing organisation’ or ‘clearing agency’) or an entity or entities, for example, a clearing member of a clearing organisation or a client of a clearing member of a clearing organisation, that are acting as counterparty in order to effect clearing by a central counterparty. However, when the parties to the hedging instrument replace their original counterparties with different counterparties this paragraph shall apply only if each of those parties effects clearing with the same central counterparty.

    2. other changes, if any, to the hedging instrument are limited to those that are necessary to effect such a replacement of the counterparty. Such changes are limited to those that are consistent with the terms that would be expected if the hedging instrument were originally cleared with the clearing counterparty. These changes include changes in the collateral requirements, rights to offset receivables and payables balances, and charges levied.

  2. The hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting in paragraph 88. In this case, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument that has been recognised in other comprehensive income from the period when the hedge was effective (see paragraph 95(a)) shall remain separately in equity until the forecast transaction occurs. When the transaction occurs, paragraph 97, 98 or 100 applies.

  3. The forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, in which case any related cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument that has been recognised in other comprehensive income from the period when the hedge was effective (see paragraph 95(a)) shall be reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment. A forecast transaction that is no longer highly probable (see paragraph 88(c)) may still be expected to occur.

  4. The entity revokes the designation. For hedges of a forecast transaction, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument that has been recognised in other comprehensive income from the period when the hedge was effective (see paragraph 95(a)) shall remain separately in equity until the forecast transaction occurs or is no longer expected to occur. When the transaction occurs, paragraph 97, 98 or 100 applies. If the transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognised in other comprehensive income shall be reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment.

Hedges of a net investment

102.Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation, including a hedge of a monetary item that is accounted for as part of the net investment (see IAS 21), shall be accounted for similarly to cash flow hedges:

  1. the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge (see paragraph 88) shall be recognised in other comprehensive income; and

  2. the ineffective portion shall be recognised in profit or loss.

The gain or loss on the hedging instrument relating to the effective portion of the hedge that has been recognised in other comprehensive income shall be reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1 (revised 2007)) in accordance with paragraphs 48-49 of IAS 21 on the disposal or partial disposal of the foreign operation.

Temporary exceptions from applying specific hedge accounting requirements

102A.An entity shall apply paragraphs 102D–102N and 108G to all hedging relationships directly affected by interest rate benchmark reform. These paragraphs apply only to such hedging relationships. A hedging relationship is directly affected by interest rate benchmark reform only if the reform gives rise to uncertainties about:

  1. the interest rate benchmark (contractually or non-contractually specified) designated as a hedged risk; and/or

  2. the timing or the amount of interest rate benchmark-based cash flows of the hedged item or of the hedging instrument.

102B.For the purpose of applying paragraphs 102D–102N, the term ‘interest rate benchmark reform’ refers to the market-wide reform of an interest rate benchmark, including the replacement of an interest rate benchmark with an alternative benchmark rate such as that resulting from the recommendations set out in the Financial Stability Board’s July 2014 report ‘Reforming Major Interest Rate Benchmarks’.1

The report, ‘Reforming Major Interest Rate Benchmarks’, is available at http://www.fsb. org/wp-content/uploads/r_140722.pdf.

102C.Paragraphs 102D–102N provide exceptions only to the requirements specified in these paragraphs. An entity shall continue to apply all other hedge accounting requirements to hedging relationships directly affected by interest rate benchmark reform.

Highly probable requirement for cash flow hedges

102D.For the purpose of applying the requirement in paragraph 88(c) that a forecast transaction must be highly probable, an entity shall assume that the interest rate benchmark on which the hedged cash flows (contractually or non-contractually specified) are based is not altered as a result of interest rate benchmark reform.

Reclassifying the cumulative gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income

102E.For the purpose of applying the requirement in paragraph 101(c) in order to determine whether the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, an entity shall assume that the interest rate benchmark on which the hedged cash flows (contractually or non-contractually specified) are based is not altered as a result of interest rate benchmark reform.

Effectiveness assessment

102F.For the purpose of applying the requirements in paragraphs 88(b) and AG105(a), an entity shall assume that the interest rate benchmark on which the hedged cash flows and/or the hedged risk (contractually or non-contractually specified) are based, or the interest rate benchmark on which the cash flows of the hedging instrument are based, is not altered as a result of interest rate benchmark reform.

102G.For the purpose of applying the requirement in paragraph 88(e), an entity is not required to discontinue a hedging relationship because the actual results of the hedge do not meet the requirements in paragraph AG105(b). For the avoidance of doubt, an entity shall apply the other conditions in paragraph 88, including the prospective assessment in paragraph 88(b), to assess whether the hedging relationship must be discontinued.

Designating financial items as hedged items

102H.Unless paragraph 102I applies, for a hedge of a non-contractually specified benchmark portion of interest rate risk, an entity shall apply the requirement in paragraphs 81 and AG99F—that the designated portion shall be separately identifiable—only at the inception of the hedging relationship.

102I.When an entity, consistent with its hedge documentation, frequently resets (ie discontinues and restarts) a hedging relationship because both the hedging instrument and the hedged item frequently change (ie the entity uses a dynamic process in which both the hedged items and the hedging instruments used to manage that exposure do not remain the same for long), the entity shall apply the requirement in paragraphs 81 and AG99F—that the designated portion is separately identifiable—only when it initially designates a hedged item in that hedging relationship. A hedged item that has been assessed at the time of its initial designation in the hedging relationship, whether it was at the time of the hedge inception or subsequently, is not reassessed at any subsequent redesignation in the same hedging relationship.

End of application

102J.An entity shall prospectively cease applying paragraph 102D to a hedged item at the earlier of:

  1. when the uncertainty arising from interest rate benchmark reform is no longer present with respect to the timing and the amount of the interest rate benchmark-based cash flows of the hedged item; and

  2. when the hedging relationship that the hedged item is part of is discontinued.

102K.An entity shall prospectively cease applying paragraph 102E at the earlier of:

  1. when the uncertainty arising from interest rate benchmark reform is no longer present with respect to the timing and the amount of the interest rate benchmark-based future cash flows of the hedged item; and

  2. when the entire cumulative gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income with respect to that discontinued hedging relationship has been reclassified to profit or loss.

102L.An entity shall prospectively cease applying paragraph 102F:

  1. to a hedged item, when the uncertainty arising from interest rate benchmark reform is no longer present with respect to the hedged risk or the timing and the amount of the interest rate benchmark-based cash flows of the hedged item; and

  2. to a hedging instrument, when the uncertainty arising from interest rate benchmark reform is no longer present with respect to the timing and the amount of the interest rate benchmark-based cash flows of the hedging instrument.

If the hedging relationship that the hedged item and the hedging instrument are part of is discontinued earlier than the date specified in paragraph 102L(a) or the date specified in paragraph 102L(b), the entity shall prospectively cease applying paragraph 102F to that hedging relationship at the date of discontinuation.

102M.An entity shall prospectively cease applying paragraph 102G to a hedging relationship at the earlier of:

  1. when the uncertainty arising from interest rate benchmark reform is no longer present with respect to the hedged risk and the timing and the amount of the interest rate benchmark-based cash flows of the hedged item and of the hedging instrument; and

  2. when the hedging relationship to which the exception is applied is discontinued.

102N.When designating a group of items as the hedged item, or a combination of financial instruments as the hedging instrument, an entity shall prospectively cease applying paragraphs 102D–102G to an individual item or financial instrument in accordance with paragraphs 102J, 102K, 102L, or 102M, as relevant, when the uncertainty arising from interest rate benchmark reform is no longer present with respect to the hedged risk and/or the timing and the amount of the interest rate benchmark-based cash flows of that item or financial instrument.

102O.An entity shall prospectively cease applying paragraphs 102H and 102I at the earlier of:

  1. when changes required by interest rate benchmark reform are made to the non-contractually specified risk portion applying paragraph 102P; or

  2. when the hedging relationship in which the non-contractually specified risk portion is designated is discontinued.

Additional temporary exceptions arising from interest rate benchmark reform

Hedge accounting

102P.As and when the requirements in paragraphs 102D–102I cease to apply to a hedging relationship (see paragraphs 102J–102O), an entity shall amend the formal designation of that hedging relationship as previously documented to reflect the changes required by interest rate benchmark reform, ie the changes are consistent with the requirements in paragraphs 5.4.6–5.4.8 of IFRS 9. In this context, the hedge designation shall be amended only to make one or more of these changes:

  1. designating an alternative benchmark rate (contractually or non-contractually specified) as a hedged risk;

  2. amending the description of the hedged item, including the description of the designated portion of the cash flows or fair value being hedged;

  3. amending the description of the hedging instrument; or

  4. amending the description of how the entity will assess hedge effectiveness.

102Q.An entity also shall apply the requirement in paragraph 102P(c) if these three conditions are met:

  1. the entity makes a change required by interest rate benchmark reform using an approach other than changing the basis for determining the contractual cash flows of the hedging instrument (as described in paragraph 5.4.6 of IFRS 9);

  2. the original hedging instrument is not derecognised; and

  3. the chosen approach is economically equivalent to changing the basis for determining the contractual cash flows of the original hedging instrument (as described in paragraphs 5.4.7 and 5.4.8 of IFRS 9).

102R.The requirements in paragraphs 102D–102I may cease to apply at different times. Therefore, applying paragraph 102P, an entity may be required to amend the formal designation of its hedging relationships at different times, or may be required to amend the formal designation of a hedging relationship more than once. When, and only when, such a change is made to the hedge designation, an entity shall apply paragraphs 102V–102Z2 as applicable. An entity also shall apply paragraph 89 (for a fair value hedge) or paragraph 96 (for a cash flow hedge) to account for any changes in the fair value of the hedged item or the hedging instrument.

102S.An entity shall amend a hedging relationship as required in paragraph 102P by the end of the reporting period during which a change required by interest rate benchmark reform is made to the hedged risk, hedged item or hedging instrument. For the avoidance of doubt, such an amendment to the formal designation of a hedging relationship constitutes neither the discontinuation of the hedging relationship nor the designation of a new hedging relationship.

102T.If changes are made in addition to those changes required by interest rate benchmark reform to the financial asset or financial liability designated in a hedging relationship (as described in paragraphs 5.4.6–5.4.8 of IFRS 9) or to the designation of the hedging relationship (as required by paragraph 102P), an entity shall first apply the applicable requirements in this Standard to determine if those additional changes result in the discontinuation of hedge accounting. If the additional changes do not result in the discontinuation of hedge accounting, an entity shall amend the formal designation of the hedging relationship as specified in paragraph 102P.

102U.Paragraphs 102V–102Z3 provide exceptions to the requirements specified in those paragraphs only. An entity shall apply all other hedge accounting requirements in this Standard, including the qualifying criteria in paragraph 88, to hedging relationships that were directly affected by interest rate benchmark reform.

Accounting for qualifying hedging relationships

Retrospective effectiveness assessment

102V.For the purpose of assessing the retrospective effectiveness of a hedging relationship on a cumulative basis applying paragraph 88(e) and only for this purpose, an entity may elect to reset to zero the cumulative fair value changes of the hedged item and hedging instrument when ceasing to apply paragraph 102G as required by paragraph 102M. This election is made separately for each hedging relationship (i.e. on an individual hedging relationship basis).

Cash flow hedges

102W.For the purpose of applying paragraph 97, at the point when an entity amends the description of a hedged item as required in paragraph 102P(b), the cumulative gain or loss in other comprehensive income shall be deemed to be based on the alternative benchmark rate on which the hedged future cash flows are determined.

102X.For a discontinued hedging relationship, when the interest rate benchmark on which the hedged future cash flows had been based is changed as required by interest rate benchmark reform, for the purpose of applying paragraph 101(c) in order to determine whether the hedged future cash flows are expected to occur, the amount accumulated in other comprehensive income for that hedging relationship shall be deemed to be based on the alternative benchmark rate on which the hedged future cash flows will be based.

Groups of items

102Y.When an entity applies paragraph 102P to groups of items designated as hedged items in a fair value or cash flow hedge, the entity shall allocate the hedged items to subgroups based on the benchmark rate being hedged and designate the benchmark rate as the hedged risk for each subgroup. For example, in a hedging relationship in which a group of items is hedged for changes in an interest rate benchmark subject to interest rate benchmark reform, the hedged cash flows or fair value of some items in the group could be changed to reference an alternative benchmark rate before other items in the group are changed. In this example, in applying paragraph 102P, the entity would designate the alternative benchmark rate as the hedged risk for that relevant subgroup of hedged items. The entity would continue to designate the existing interest rate benchmark as the hedged risk for the other subgroup of hedged items until the hedged cash flows or fair value of those items are changed to reference the alternative benchmark rate or the items expire and are replaced with hedged items that reference the alternative benchmark rate.

102Z.An entity shall assess separately whether each subgroup meets the requirements in paragraphs 78 and 83 to be an eligible hedged item. If any subgroup fails to meet the requirements in paragraphs 78 and 83, the entity shall discontinue hedge accounting prospectively for the hedging relationship in its entirety. An entity also shall apply the requirements in paragraphs 89 or 96 to account for ineffectiveness related to the hedging relationship in its entirety.

Designating financial items as hedged items

102Z1.An alternative benchmark rate designated as a non-contractually specified risk portion that is not separately identifiable (see paragraphs 81 and AG99F) at the date it is designated shall be deemed to have met that requirement at that date, if, and only if, the entity reasonably expects the alternative benchmark rate will be separately identifiable within 24 months. The 24-month period applies to each alternative benchmark rate separately and starts from the date the entity designates the alternative benchmark rate as a non-contractually specified risk portion for the first time (i.e. the 24-month period applies on a rate-by-rate basis).

102Z2.If subsequently an entity reasonably expects that the alternative benchmark rate will not be separately identifiable within 24 months from the date the entity designated it as a non-contractually specified risk portion for the first time, the entity shall cease applying the requirement in paragraph 102Z1 to that alternative benchmark rate and discontinue hedge accounting prospectively from the date of that reassessment for all hedging relationships in which the alternative benchmark rate was designated as a non- contractually specified risk portion.

102Z3.In addition to those hedging relationships specified in paragraph 102P, an entity shall apply the requirements in paragraphs 102Z1 and 102Z2 to new hedging relationships in which an alternative benchmark rate is designated as a non-contractually specified risk portion (see paragraphs 81 and AG99F) when, because of interest rate benchmark reform, that risk portion is not separately identifiable at the date it is designated.

Effective date and transition

103.An entity shall apply this standard (including the amendments issued in March 2004) for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005. Earlier application is permitted. An entity shall not apply this standard (including the amendments issued in March 2004) for annual periods beginning before 1 January 2005 unless it also applies IAS 32 (issued December 2003). If an entity applies this standard for a period beginning before 1 January 2005, it shall disclose that fact.

103A.An entity shall apply the amendment in paragraph 2(j) for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2006. If an entity applies IFRIC 5 Rights to interests arising from decommissioning, restoration and environmental rehabilitation funds for an earlier period, this amendment shall be applied for that earlier period.

103B.[Deleted]

103C.IAS 1 (as revised in 2007) amended the terminology used throughout IFRSs. In addition it amended paragraphs 95(a), 97, 98, 100, 102, 108 and AG99B. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. If an entity applies IAS 1 (revised 2007) for an earlier period, the amendments shall be applied for that earlier period.

103D.[Deleted]

103E.IAS 27 (as amended by the International Accounting Standards Board in 2008) amended paragraph 102. An entity shall apply that amendment for annual periods beginning on or after 1 July 2009. If an entity applies IAS 27 (amended 2008) for an earlier period, the amendment shall be applied for that earlier period.

103F.[Deleted]

103G.An entity shall apply paragraphs AG99BA, AG99E, AG99F, AG110A and AG110B retrospectively for annual periods beginning on or after 1 July 2009, in accordance with IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies Eligible Hedged Items (Amendment to IAS 39) for periods beginning before 1 July 2009, it shall disclose that fact.

103H.[Deleted]

103I.[Deleted]

103J.[Deleted]

103K.Improvements to IFRSs, issued in April 2009, amended paragraphs 2(g), 97 and 100. An entity shall apply the amendments to those paragraphs prospectively to all unexpired contracts for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2010. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies the amendments for an earlier period it shall disclose that fact.

103L.[Deleted]

103M.[Deleted]

103N.[Deleted]

103O.[Deleted]

103P.[Deleted]

103Q.IFRS 13, issued in May 2011, amended paragraphs 9, 13, 28, 47, 88, AG46, AG52, AG64, AG76, AG76A, AG80, AG81 and AG96, added paragraph 43A and deleted paragraphs 48–49, AG69–AG75, AG77–AG79 and AG82. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 13.

103R103R Investment Entities (Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 12 and IAS 27), issued in October 2012, amended paragraphs 2 and 80. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2014. Earlier application of Investment Entities is permitted. If an entity applies those amendments earlier it shall also apply all amendments included in Investment Entities at the same time.

103T.IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers, issued in May 2014, amended paragraphs 2, 9, 43, 47, 55, AG2, AG4 and AG48 and added paragraphs 2A, 44A, 55A and AG8A–AG8C. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 15.

103U.IFRS 9, as issued in July 2014, amended paragraphs 2, 8, 9, 71, 88–90, 96, AG95, AG114, AG118 and the headings above AG133 and deleted paragraphs 1, 4–7, 10–70, 103B, 103D, 103F, 103H–103J, 103L–103P, 103S, 105–107A, 108E–108F, AG1–AG93 and AG96. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 9.

103V.IFRS 16, issued in January 2016, amended paragraphs 2 and AG33. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 16.

104.This Standard shall be applied retrospectively except as specified in paragraph 108. The opening balance of retained earnings for the earliest prior period presented and all other comparative amounts shall be adjusted as if this Standard had always been in use unless restating the information would be impracticable. If restatement is impracticable, the entity shall disclose that fact and indicate the extent to which the information was restated.

105.[Deleted]

106.[Deleted]

107.[Deleted]

107A.[Deleted]

108.An entity shall not adjust the carrying amount of non-financial assets and non-financial liabilities to exclude gains and losses related to cash flow hedges that were included in the carrying amount before the beginning of the financial year in which this Standard is first applied. At the beginning of the financial period in which this Standard is first applied, any amount recognised outside profit or loss (in other comprehensive income or directly in equity) for a hedge of a firm commitment that under this Standard is accounted for as a fair value hedge shall be reclassified as an asset or liability, except for a hedge of foreign currency risk that continues to be treated as a cash flow hedge.

108A.An entity shall apply the last sentence of paragraph 80, and paragraphs AG99A and AG99B, for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2006. Earlier application is encouraged. If an entity has designated as the hedged item an external forecast transaction that:

  1. is denominated in the functional currency of the entity entering into the transaction;

  2. gives rise to an exposure that will have an effect on consolidated profit or loss (i.e. is denominated in a currency other than the group's presentation currency); and

  3. would have qualified for hedge accounting had it not been denominated in the functional currency of the entity entering into it;

it may apply hedge accounting in the consolidated financial statements in the period(s) before the date of application of the last sentence of paragraph 80, and paragraphs AG99A and AG99B.

108B.An entity need not apply paragraph AG99B to comparative information relating to periods before the date of application of the last sentence of paragraph 80 and paragraph AG99A.

108C.Paragraphs 73 and AG8 were amended by Improvements to IFRSs, issued in May 2008. Paragraph 80 was amended by Improvements to IFRSs, issued in April 2009. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. Earlier application of all the amendments is permitted. If an entity applies the amendments for an earlier period it shall disclose that fact.

108D.Novation of Derivatives and Continuation of Hedge Accounting (Amendments to IAS 39), issued in June 2013, amended paragraphs 91 and 101 and added paragraph AG113A. An entity shall apply those paragraphs for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2014. An entity shall apply those amendments retrospectively in accordance with IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies those amendments for an earlier period it shall disclose that fact.

108E.[Deleted]

108F.[Deleted]

108G.Interest Rate Benchmark Reform, which amended IFRS 9, IAS 39 and IFRS 7, issued in September 2019, added paragraphs 102A–102N. An entity shall apply these amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2020. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies these amendments for an earlier period, it shall disclose that fact. An entity shall apply these amendments retrospectively to those hedging relationships that existed at the beginning of the reporting period in which an entity first applies these amendments or were designated thereafter, and to the gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income that existed at the beginning of the reporting period in which an entity first applies these amendments.

108H.Interest Rate Benchmark Reform – Phase 2, which amended IFRS 9, IAS 39, IFRS 7, IFRS 4 and IFRS 16, issued in August 2020, added paragraphs 102O–102Z3 and 108I–108K, and amended paragraph 102M. An entity shall apply these amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2021. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies these amendments for an earlier period, it shall disclose that fact. An entity shall apply these amendments retrospectively in accordance with IAS 8, except as specified in paragraphs 108I–108K.

108I.An entity shall designate a new hedging relationship (for example, as described in paragraph 102Z3) only prospectively (i.e. an entity is prohibited from designating a new hedge accounting relationship in prior periods). However, an entity shall reinstate a discontinued hedging relationship if, and only if, these conditions are met:

  1. the entity had discontinued that hedging relationship solely due to changes required by interest rate benchmark reform and the entity would not have been required to discontinue that hedging relationship if these amendments had been applied at that time; and

  2. at the beginning of the reporting period in which an entity first applies these amendments (date of initial application of these amendments), that discontinued hedging relationship meets the qualifying criteria for hedge accounting (after taking into account these amendments).

108J.If, in applying paragraph 108I, an entity reinstates a discontinued hedging relationship, the entity shall read references in paragraphs 102Z1 and 102Z2 to the date the alternative benchmark rate is designated as a non-contractually specified risk portion for the first time as referring to the date of initial application of these amendments (i.e. the 24-month period for that alternative benchmark rate designated as a non-contractually specified risk portion begins from the date of initial application of these amendments).

108K.An entity is not required to restate prior periods to reflect the application of these amendments. The entity may restate prior periods if, and only if, it is possible without the use of hindsight. If an entity does not restate prior periods, the entity shall recognise any difference between the previous carrying amount and the carrying amount at the beginning of the annual reporting period that includes the date of initial application of these amendments in the opening retained earnings (or other component of equity, as appropriate) of the annual reporting period that includes the date of initial application of these amendments.

Withdrawal of other pronouncements

109.This standard supersedes IAS 39 Financial instruments: recognition and measurement revised in October 2000.

110.This standard and the accompanying Implementation Guidance supersede the Implementation Guidance issued by the IAS 39 Implementation Guidance Committee, established by the former IASC.

Appendix A Application guidance

This appendix is an integral part of the standard.

Hedging (paragraphs 71–102)

Hedging instruments (paragraphs 72–77)

Qualifying instruments (paragraphs 72 and 73)

AG94.The potential loss on an option that an entity writes could be significantly greater than the potential gain in value of a related hedged item. In other words, a written option is not effective in reducing the profit or loss exposure of a hedged item. Therefore, a written option does not qualify as a hedging instrument unless it is designated as an offset to a purchased option, including one that is embedded in another financial instrument (for example, a written call option used to hedge a callable liability). In contrast, a purchased option has potential gains equal to or greater than losses and therefore has the potential to reduce profit or loss exposure from changes in fair values or cash flows. Accordingly, it can qualify as a hedging instrument.

AG95.A financial asset measured at amortised cost may be designated as a hedging instrument in a hedge of foreign currency risk.

AG97.An entity's own equity instruments are not financial assets or financial liabilities of the entity and therefore cannot be designated as hedging instruments.

Hedged items (paragraphs 78-84)

Qualifying items (paragraphs 78-80)

AG98.A firm commitment to acquire a business in a business combination cannot be a hedged item, except for foreign exchange risk, because the other risks being hedged cannot be specifically identified and measured. These other risks are general business risks.

AG99.An equity method investment cannot be a hedged item in a fair value hedge because the equity method recognises in profit or loss the investor's share of the associate's profit or loss, rather than changes in the investment's fair value. For a similar reason, an investment in a consolidated subsidiary cannot be a hedged item in a fair value hedge because consolidation recognises in profit or loss the subsidiary's profit or loss, rather than changes in the investment's fair value. A hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation is different because it is a hedge of the foreign currency exposure, not a fair value hedge of the change in the value of the investment.

AG99A.Paragraph 80 states that in consolidated financial statements the foreign currency risk of a highly probable forecast intragroup transaction may qualify as a hedged item in a cash flow hedge, provided the transaction is denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity entering into that transaction and the foreign currency risk will affect consolidated profit or loss. For this purpose an entity can be a parent, subsidiary, associate, joint venture or branch. If the foreign currency risk of a forecast intragroup transaction does not affect consolidated profit or loss, the intragroup transaction cannot qualify as a hedged item. This is usually the case for royalty payments, interest payments or management charges between members of the same group unless there is a related external transaction. However, when the foreign currency risk of a forecast intragroup transaction will affect consolidated profit or loss, the intragroup transaction can qualify as a hedged item. An example is forecast sales or purchases of inventories between members of the same group if there is an onward sale of the inventory to a party external to the group. Similarly, a forecast intragroup sale of plant and equipment from the group entity that manufactured it to a group entity that will use the plant and equipment in its operations may affect consolidated profit or loss. This could occur, for example, because the plant and equipment will be depreciated by the purchasing entity and the amount initially recognised for the plant and equipment may change if the forecast intragroup transaction is denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the purchasing entity.

AG99B.If a hedge of a forecast intragroup transaction qualifies for hedge accounting, any gain or loss that is recognised in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 95(a) shall be reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment in the same period or periods during which the foreign currency risk of the hedged transaction affects consolidated profit or loss.

AG99BA.An entity can designate all changes in the cash flows or fair value of a hedged item in a hedging relationship. An entity can also designate only changes in the cash flows or fair value of a hedged item above or below a specified price or other variable (a one-sided risk). The intrinsic value of a purchased option hedging instrument (assuming that it has the same principal terms as the designated risk), but not its time value, reflects a one-sided risk in a hedged item. For example, an entity can designate the variability of future cash flow outcomes resulting from a price increase of a forecast commodity purchase. In such a situation, only cash flow losses that result from an increase in the price above the specified level are designated. The hedged risk does not include the time value of a purchased option because the time value is not a component of the forecast transaction that affects profit or loss (paragraph 86(b)).

Designation of financial items as hedged items (paragraphs 81 and 81A)

AG99C.[...]The entity may designate all of the cash flows of the entire financial asset or financial liability as the hedged item and hedge them for only one particular risk (e.g. only for changes that are attributable to changes in LIBOR). For example, in the case of a financial liability whose effective interest rate is 100 basis points below LIBOR, an entity can designate as the hedged item the entire liability (i.e. principal plus interest at LIBOR minus 100 basis points) and hedge the change in the fair value or cash flows of that entire liability that is attributable to changes in LIBOR. The entity may also choose a hedge ratio of other than one to one in order to improve the effectiveness of the hedge as described in paragraph AG100.

AG99D.In addition, if a fixed rate financial instrument is hedged some time after its origination and interest rates have changed in the meantime, the entity can designate a portion equal to a benchmark rate […]. For example, assume an entity originates a fixed rate financial asset of CU100 that has an effective interest rate of 6 per cent at a time when LIBOR is 4 per cent. It begins to hedge that asset some time later when LIBOR has increased to 8 per cent and the fair value of the asset has decreased to CU90. The entity calculates that if it had purchased the asset on the date it first designates it as the hedged item for its then fair value of CU90, the effective yield would have been 9,5 per cent. […]. The entity can designate a LIBOR portion of 8 per cent that consists partly of the contractual interest cash flows and partly of the difference between the current fair value (i.e. CU90) and the amount repayable on maturity (i.e. CU100).

AG99E.Paragraph 81 permits an entity to designate something other than the entire fair value change or cash flow variability of a financial instrument. For example:

  1. all of the cash flows of a financial instrument may be designated for cash flow or fair value changes attributable to some (but not all) risks; or

  2. some (but not all) of the cash flows of a financial instrument may be designated for cash flow or fair value changes attributable to all or only some risks (ie a ‘portion’ of the cash flows of the financial instrument may be designated for changes attributable to all or only some risks).

AG99F.To be eligible for hedge accounting, the designated risks and portions must be separately identifiable components of the financial instrument, and changes in the cash flows or fair value of the entire financial instrument arising from changes in the designated risks and portions must be reliably measurable. For example:

  1. for a fixed rate financial instrument hedged for changes in fair value attributable to changes in a risk-free or benchmark interest rate, the risk-free or benchmark rate is normally regarded as both a separately identifiable component of the financial instrument and reliably measurable;

  2. inflation is not separately identifiable and reliably measurable and cannot be designated as a risk or a portion of a financial instrument unless the requirements in (c) are met;

  3. a contractually specified inflation portion of the cash flows of a recognised inflation-linked bond (assuming there is no requirement to account for an embedded derivative separately) is separately identifiable and reliably measurable as long as other cash flows of the instrument are not affected by the inflation portion.

Designation of non-financial items as hedged items (paragraph 82)

AG100.Changes in the price of an ingredient or component of a non- financial asset or non-financial liability generally do not have a predictable, separately measurable effect on the price of the item that is comparable to the effect of, say, a change in market interest rates on the price of a bond. Thus, a non-financial asset or non-financial liability is a hedged item only in its entirety or for foreign exchange risk. If there is a difference between the terms of the hedging instrument and the hedged item (such as for a hedge of the forecast purchase of Brazilian coffee using a forward contract to purchase Colombian coffee on otherwise similar terms), the hedging relationship nonetheless can qualify as a hedge relationship provided all the conditions in paragraph 88 are met, including that the hedge is expected to be highly effective. For this purpose, the amount of the hedging instrument may be greater or less than that of the hedged item if this improves the effectiveness of the hedging relationship. For example, a regression analysis could be performed to establish a statistical relationship between the hedged item (e.g. a transaction in Brazilian coffee) and the hedging instrument (e.g. a transaction in Colombian coffee). If there is a valid statistical relationship between the two variables (i.e. between the unit prices of Brazilian coffee and Colombian coffee), the slope of the regression line can be used to establish the hedge ratio that will maximise expected effectiveness. For example, if the slope of the regression line is 1,02, a hedge ratio based on 0,98 quantities of hedged items to 1,00 quantities of the hedging instrument maximises expected effectiveness. However, the hedging relationship may result in ineffectiveness that is recognised in profit or loss during the term of the hedging relationship.

Designation of groups of items as hedged items (paragraphs 83 and 84)

AG101.A hedge of an overall net position (e.g. the net of all fixed rate assets and fixed rate liabilities with similar maturities), rather than of a specific hedged item, does not qualify for hedge accounting. However, almost the same effect on profit or loss of hedge accounting for this type of hedging relationship can be achieved by designating as the hedged item part of the underlying items. For example, if a bank has CU100 of assets and CU90 of liabilities with risks and terms of a similar nature and hedges the net CU10 exposure, it can designate as the hedged item CU10 of those assets. This designation can be used if such assets and liabilities are fixed rate instruments, in which case it is a fair value hedge, or if they are variable rate instruments, in which case it is a cash flow hedge. Similarly, if an entity has a firm commitment to make a purchase in a foreign currency of CU100 and a firm commitment to make a sale in the foreign currency of CU90, it can hedge the net amount of CU10 by acquiring a derivative and designating it as a hedging instrument associated with CU10 of the firm purchase commitment of CU100.

Hedge accounting (paragraphs 85-102)

AG102.An example of a fair value hedge is a hedge of exposure to changes in the fair value of a fixed rate debt instrument as a result of changes in interest rates. Such a hedge could be entered into by the issuer or by the holder.

AG103.An example of a cash flow hedge is the use of a swap to change floating rate debt to fixed rate debt (i.e. a hedge of a future transaction where the future cash flows being hedged are the future interest payments).

AG104.A hedge of a firm commitment (e.g. a hedge of the change in fuel price relating to an unrecognised contractual commitment by an electric utility to purchase fuel at a fixed price) is a hedge of an exposure to a change in fair value. Accordingly, such a hedge is a fair value hedge. However, under paragraph 87 a hedge of the foreign currency risk of a firm commitment could alternatively be accounted for as a cash flow hedge.

Assessing hedge effectiveness

AG105.A hedge is regarded as highly effective only if both of the following conditions are met:

  1. At the inception of the hedge and in subsequent periods, the hedge is expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk during the period for which the hedge is designated. Such an expectation can be demonstrated in various ways, including a comparison of past changes in the fair value or cash flows of the hedged item that are attributable to the hedged risk with past changes in the fair value or cash flows of the hedging instrument, or by demonstrating a high statistical correlation between the fair value or cash flows of the hedged item and those of the hedging instrument. The entity may choose a hedge ratio of other than one to one in order to improve the effectiveness of the hedge as described in paragraph AG100.

  2. The actual results of the hedge are within a range of 80-125 per cent. For example, if actual results are such that the loss on the hedging instrument is CU120 and the gain on the cash instrument is CU100, offset can be measured by 120/100, which is 120 per cent, or by 100/120, which is 83 per cent. In this example, assuming the hedge meets the condition in (a), the entity would conclude that the hedge has been highly effective.

AG106.Effectiveness is assessed, at a minimum, at the time an entity prepares its annual or interim financial statements.

AG107.This standard does not specify a single method for assessing hedge effectiveness. The method an entity adopts for assessing hedge effectiveness depends on its risk management strategy. For example, if the entity's risk management strategy is to adjust the amount of the hedging instrument periodically to reflect changes in the hedged position, the entity needs to demonstrate that the hedge is expected to be highly effective only for the period until the amount of the hedging instrument is next adjusted. In some cases, an entity adopts different methods for different types of hedges. An entity's documentation of its hedging strategy includes its procedures for assessing effectiveness. Those procedures state whether the assessment includes all of the gain or loss on a hedging instrument or whether the instrument's time value is excluded.

AG107A.[...].

AG108.If the principal terms of the hedging instrument and of the hedged asset, liability, firm commitment or highly probable forecast transaction are the same, the changes in fair value and cash flows attributable to the risk being hedged may be likely to offset each other fully, both when the hedge is entered into and afterwards. For example, an interest rate swap is likely to be an effective hedge if the notional and principal amounts, term, repricing dates, dates of interest and principal receipts and payments, and basis for measuring interest rates are the same for the hedging instrument and the hedged item. In addition, a hedge of a highly probable forecast purchase of a commodity with a forward contract is likely to be highly effective if:

  1. the forward contract is for the purchase of the same quantity of the same commodity at the same time and location as the hedged forecast purchase;

  2. the fair value of the forward contract at inception is zero; and

  3. either the change in the discount or premium on the forward contract is excluded from the assessment of effectiveness and recognised in profit or loss or the change in expected cash flows on the highly probable forecast transaction is based on the forward price for the commodity.

AG109.Sometimes the hedging instrument offsets only part of the hedged risk. For example, a hedge would not be fully effective if the hedging instrument and hedged item are denominated in different currencies that do not move in tandem. Also, a hedge of interest rate risk using a derivative would not be fully effective if part of the change in the fair value of the derivative is attributable to the counterparty's credit risk.

AG110.To qualify for hedge accounting, the hedge must relate to a specific identified and designated risk, and not merely to the entity's general business risks, and must ultimately affect the entity's profit or loss. A hedge of the risk of obsolescence of a physical asset or the risk of expropriation of property by a government is not eligible for hedge accounting; effectiveness cannot be measured because those risks are not measurable reliably.

AG110A.Paragraph 74(a) permits an entity to separate the intrinsic value and time value of an option contract and designate as the hedging instrument only the change in the intrinsic value of the option contract. Such a designation may result in a hedging relationship that is perfectly effective in achieving offsetting changes in cash flows attributable to a hedged one-sided risk of a forecast transaction, if the principal terms of the forecast transaction and hedging instrument are the same.

AG110B.If an entity designates a purchased option in its entirety as the hedging instrument of a one-sided risk arising from a forecast transaction, the hedging relationship will not be perfectly effective. This is because the premium paid for the option includes time value and, as stated in paragraph AG99BA, a designated one-sided risk does not include the time value of an option. Therefore, in this situation, there will be no offset between the cash flows relating to the time value of the option premium paid and the designated hedged risk.

AG111.In the case of interest rate risk, hedge effectiveness may be assessed by preparing a maturity schedule for financial assets and financial liabilities that shows the net interest rate exposure for each time period, provided that the net exposure is associated with a specific asset or liability (or a specific group of assets or liabilities or a specific portion of them) giving rise to the net exposure, and hedge effectiveness is assessed against that asset or liability.

AG112.In assessing the effectiveness of a hedge, an entity generally considers the time value of money. The fixed interest rate on a hedged item need not exactly match the fixed interest rate on a swap designated as a fair value hedge. Nor does the variable interest rate on an interest-bearing asset or liability need to be the same as the variable interest rate on a swap designated as a cash flow hedge. A swap's fair value derives from its net settlements. The fixed and variable rates on a swap can be changed without affecting the net settlement if both are changed by the same amount.

AG113.If an entity does not meet hedge effectiveness criteria, the entity discontinues hedge accounting from the last date on which compliance with hedge effectiveness was demonstrated. However, if the entity identifies the event or change in circumstances that caused the hedging relationship to fail the effectiveness criteria, and demonstrates that the hedge was effective before the event or change in circumstances occurred, the entity discontinues hedge accounting from the date of the event or change in circumstances.

AG113A.For the avoidance of doubt, the effects of replacing the original counterparty with a clearing counterparty and making the associated changes as described in paragraphs 91(a)(ii) and 101(a)(ii) shall be reflected in the measurement of the hedging instrument and therefore in the assessment of hedge effectiveness and the measurement of hedge effectiveness.

Fair value hedge accounting for a portfolio hedge of interest rate risk

AG114.For a fair value hedge of interest rate risk associated with a portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities, an entity would meet the requirements of this Standard if it complies with the procedures set out in (a)–(i) and paragraphs AG115–AG132 below.

  1. As part of its risk management process the entity identifies a portfolio of items whose interest rate risk it wishes to hedge. The portfolio may comprise only assets, only liabilities or both assets and liabilities. The entity may identify two or more portfolios, in which case it applies the guidance below to each portfolio separately.

  2. The entity analyses the portfolio into repricing time periods based on expected, rather than contractual, repricing dates. The analysis into repricing time periods may be performed in various ways, including scheduling cash flows into the periods in which they are expected to occur, or scheduling notional principal amounts into all periods until repricing is expected to occur.

  3. On the basis of this analysis, the entity decides the amount it wishes to hedge. The entity designates as the hedged item an amount of assets or liabilities (but not a net amount) from the identified portfolio equal to the amount it wishes to designate as being hedged. […].

  4. The entity designates the interest rate risk it is hedging. This risk could be a portion of the interest rate risk in each of the items in the hedged position, such as a benchmark interest rate (e.g. LIBOR).

  5. The entity designates one or more hedging instruments for each repricing time period.

  6. Using the designations made in (c)-(e) above, the entity assesses at inception and in subsequent periods, whether the hedge is expected to be highly effective during the period for which the hedge is designated.

  7. Periodically, the entity measures the change in the fair value of the hedged item (as designated in (c)) that is attributable to the hedged risk (as designated in (d)), […]. Provided that the hedge is determined actually to have been highly effective when assessed using the entity's documented method of assessing effectiveness, the entity recognises the change in fair value of the hedged item as a gain or loss in profit or loss and in one of two line items in the statement of financial position as described in paragraph 89A. The change in fair value need not be allocated to individual assets or liabilities.

  8. The entity measures the change in fair value of the hedging instrument(s) (as designated in (e)) and recognises it as a gain or loss in profit or loss. The fair value of the hedging instrument(s) is recognised as an asset or liability in the statement of financial position.

  9. Any ineffectiveness2 will be recognised in profit or loss as the difference between the change in fair value referred to in (g) and that referred to in (h).

The same materiality considerations apply in this context as apply throughout IFRSs.

AG115.This approach is described in more detail below. The approach shall be applied only to a fair value hedge of the interest rate risk associated with a portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities.

AG116.The portfolio identified in paragraph AG114(a) could contain assets and liabilities. Alternatively, it could be a portfolio containing only assets, or only liabilities. The portfolio is used to determine the amount of the assets or liabilities the entity wishes to hedge. However, the portfolio is not itself designated as the hedged item.

AG117.In applying paragraph AG114(b), the entity determines the expected repricing date of an item as the earlier of the dates when that item is expected to mature or to reprice to market rates. The expected repricing dates are estimated at the inception of the hedge and throughout the term of the hedge, based on historical experience and other available information, including information and expectations regarding prepayment rates, interest rates and the interaction between them. Entities that have no entity-specific experience or insufficient experience use peer group experience for comparable financial instruments. These estimates are reviewed periodically and updated in the light of experience. In the case of a fixed rate item that is prepayable, the expected repricing date is the date on which the item is expected to prepay unless it reprices to market rates on an earlier date. For a group of similar items, the analysis into time periods based on expected repricing dates may take the form of allocating a percentage of the group, rather than individual items, to each time period. An entity may apply other methodologies for such allocation purposes. For example, it may use a prepayment rate multiplier for allocating amortising loans to time periods based on expected repricing dates. However, the methodology for such an allocation shall be in accordance with the entity's risk management procedures and objectives.

AG118.As an example of the designation set out in paragraph AG114(c), if in a particular repricing time period an entity estimates that it has fixed rate assets of CU100 and fixed rate liabilities of CU80 and decides to hedge all of the net position of CU20, it designates as the hedged item assets in the amount of CU20 (a portion of the assets). The designation is expressed as an ‘amount of a currency’ (eg an amount of dollars, euro, pounds or rand) rather than as individual assets. It follows that all of the assets (or liabilities) from which the hedged amount is drawn—ie all of the CU100 of assets in the above example—must be items whose fair value changes in response to changes in the interest rate being hedged[...].

AG119.The entity also complies with the other designation and documentation requirements set out in paragraph 88(a). For a portfolio hedge of interest rate risk, this designation and documentation specifies the entity's policy for all of the variables that are used to identify the amount that is hedged and how effectiveness is measured, including the following:

  1. which assets and liabilities are to be included in the portfolio hedge and the basis to be used for removing them from the portfolio;

  2. how the entity estimates repricing dates, including what interest rate assumptions underlie estimates of prepayment rates and the basis for changing those estimates. The same method is used for both the initial estimates made at the time an asset or liability is included in the hedged portfolio and for any later revisions to those estimates;

  3. the number and duration of repricing time periods;

  4. how often the entity will test effectiveness [...];

  5. the methodology used by the entity to determine the amount of assets or liabilities that are designated as the hedged item [...];

  6. [...]. whether the entity will test effectiveness for each repricing time period individually, for all time periods in aggregate, or by using some combination of the two.

The policies specified in designating and documenting the hedging relationship shall be in accordance with the entity's risk management procedures and objectives. Changes in policies shall not be made arbitrarily. They shall be justified on the basis of changes in market conditions and other factors and be founded on and consistent with the entity's risk management procedures and objectives.

AG120.The hedging instrument referred to in paragraph AG114(e) may be a single derivative or a portfolio of derivatives all of which contain exposure to the hedged interest rate risk designated in paragraph AG114(d) (e.g. a portfolio of interest rate swaps all of which contain exposure to LIBOR). Such a portfolio of derivatives may contain offsetting risk positions. However, it may not include written options or net written options, because the standard3 does not permit such options to be designated as hedging instruments (except when a written option is designated as an offset to a purchased option). If the hedging instrument hedges the amount designated in paragraph AG114(c) for more than one repricing time period, it is allocated to all of the time periods that it hedges. However, the whole of the hedging instrument must be allocated to those repricing time periods because the standard4 does not permit a hedging relationship to be designated for only a portion of the time period during which a hedging instrument remains outstanding.

See paragraphs 77 and AG94.

See paragraph 75.

AG121.When the entity measures the change in the fair value of a prepayable item in accordance with paragraph AG114(g), a change in interest rates affects the fair value of the prepayable item in two ways: it affects the fair value of the contractual cash flows and the fair value of the prepayment option that is contained in a prepayable item. Paragraph 81 of the standard permits an entity to designate a portion of a financial asset or financial liability, sharing a common risk exposure, as the hedged item, provided effectiveness can be measured. [...].

AG122.The standard does not specify the techniques used to determine the amount referred to in paragraph AG114(g), namely the change in the fair value of the hedged item that is attributable to the hedged risk. [...]. It is not appropriate to assume that changes in the fair value of the hedged item equal changes in the value of the hedging instrument.

AG123.Paragraph 89A requires that if the hedged item for a particular repricing time period is an asset, the change in its value is presented in a separate line item within assets. Conversely, if the hedged item for a particular repricing time period is a liability, the change in its value is presented in a separate line item within liabilities. These are the separate line items referred to in paragraph AG114(g). Specific allocation to individual assets (or liabilities) is not required.

AG124.Paragraph AG114(i) notes that ineffectiveness arises to the extent that the change in the fair value of the hedged item that is attributable to the hedged risk differs from the change in the fair value of the hedging derivative. Such a difference may arise for a number of reasons, including:

  1. [...];

  2. items in the hedged portfolio becoming impaired or being derecognised;

  3. the payment dates of the hedging instrument and the hedged item being different; and

  4. other causes [...].

Such ineffectiveness5 shall be identified and recognised in profit or loss.

The same materiality considerations apply in this context as apply throughout IFRSs.

AG125.Generally, the effectiveness of the hedge will be improved:

  1. if the entity schedules items with different prepayment characteristics in a way that takes account of the differences in prepayment behaviour;

  2. when the number of items in the portfolio is larger. When only a few items are contained in the portfolio, relatively high ineffectiveness is likely if one of the items prepays earlier or later than expected. Conversely, when the portfolio contains many items, the prepayment behaviour can be predicted more accurately;

  3. when the repricing time periods used are narrower (e.g. 1- month as opposed to 3-month repricing time periods). Narrower repricing time periods reduce the effect of any mismatch between the repricing and payment dates (within the repricing time period) of the hedged item and those of the hedging instrument;

  4. the greater the frequency with which the amount of the hedging instrument is adjusted to reflect changes in the hedged item (e.g. because of changes in prepayment expectations).

AG126.An entity tests effectiveness periodically. [...]

AG127.When measuring effectiveness, the entity distinguishes revisions to the estimated repricing dates of existing assets (or liabilities) from the origination of new assets (or liabilities), with only the former giving rise to ineffectiveness. […].Once ineffectiveness has been recognised as set out above, the entity establishes a new estimate of the total assets (or liabilities) in each repricing time period, including new assets (or liabilities) that have been originated since it last tested effectiveness, and designates a new amount as the hedged item and a new percentage as the hedged percentage. [...]

AG128.Items that were originally scheduled into a repricing time period may be derecognised because of earlier than expected prepayment or write-offs caused by impairment or sale. When this occurs, the amount of change in fair value included in the separate line item referred to in paragraph AG114(g) that relates to the derecognised item shall be removed from the statement of financial position, and included in the gain or loss that arises on derecognition of the item. For this purpose, it is necessary to know the repricing time period(s) into which the derecognised item was scheduled, because this determines the repricing time period(s) from which to remove it and hence the amount to remove from the separate line item referred to in paragraph AG114(g). When an item is derecognised, if it can be determined in which time period it was included, it is removed from that time period. If not, it is removed from the earliest time period if the derecognition resulted from higher than expected prepayments, or allocated to all time periods containing the derecognised item on a systematic and rational basis if the item was sold or became impaired.

AG129.In addition, any amount relating to a particular time period that has not been derecognised when the time period expires is recognised in profit or loss at that time (see paragraph 89A). [...]

AG130.[...].

AG131.If the hedged amount for a repricing time period is reduced without the related assets (or liabilities) being derecognised, the amount included in the separate line item referred to in paragraph AG114(g) that relates to the reduction shall be amortised in accordance with paragraph 92.

AG132.An entity may wish to apply the approach set out in paragraphs AG114-AG131 to a portfolio hedge that had previously been accounted for as a cash flow hedge in accordance with IAS 39. Such an entity would revoke the previous designation of a cash flow hedge in accordance with paragraph 101(d), and apply the requirements set out in that paragraph. It would also redesignate the hedge as a fair value hedge and apply the approach set out in paragraphs AG114-AG131 prospectively to subsequent accounting periods.

Transition (paragraphs 103–108C)

AG133.An entity may have designated a forecast intragroup transaction as a hedged item at the start of an annual period beginning on or after 1 January 2005 (or, for the purpose of restating comparative information, the start of an earlier comparative period) in a hedge that would qualify for hedge accounting in accordance with this standard (as amended by the last sentence of paragraph 80). Such an entity may use that designation to apply hedge accounting in consolidated financial statements from the start of the annual period beginning on or after 1 January 2005 (or the start of the earlier comparative period). Such an entity shall also apply paragraphs AG99A and AG99B from the start of the annual period beginning on or after 1 January 2005. However, in accordance with paragraph 108B, it need not apply paragraph AG99B to comparative information for earlier periods.