INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD

IAS 40 Investment Property

IAS 40 was adopted by the European Commission by Regulation (1126/2008/EC) and amended by the following regulations:

  • Regulation (1274/2008/EC) – IAS 1,

  • Regulation (70/2009/EC) – Improvements to IFRSs,

  • Regulation (1255/2012/EU) – IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement,

  • Regulation (1361/2014/EU) – Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2011–2013 Cycle,

  • Regulation (EU) 2015/2113 – Bearer Plants, Amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 41,

  • Regulation (EU) 2016/1905 – IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers,

  • Regulation (EU) 2017/1986 – följdändringar vid antagandet av IFRS 16 Leases,

  • Regulation (EU) 2018/400 – Transfers of Investment Property, Amendments to IAS 40,

  • Regulation (EU) 2021/2036 – IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts.

Objective

1.The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for investment property and related disclosure requirements.

Scope

2.This Standard shall be applied in the recognition, measurement and disclosure of investment property.

3.[Deleted]

4.This Standard does not apply to:

  1. biological assets related to agricultural activity (see IAS 41 Agriculture and IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment); and

  2. mineral rights and mineral reserves such as oil, natural gas and similar non-regenerative resources.

Definitions

5.The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:

  • Carrying amount is the amount at which an asset is recognised in the statement of financial position.

  • Cost is the amount of cash or cash equivalents paid or the fair value of other consideration given to acquire an asset at the time of its acquisition or construction or, where applicable, the amount attributed to that asset when initially recognised in accordance with the specific requirements of other IFRSs, eg IFRS 2 Share- based Payment.

  • Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. (See IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement).

  • Investment property is property (land or a building—or part of a building—or both) held (by the owner or by the lessee as a right- of-use asset) to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both, rather than for:

    1. use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes; or

    2. sale in the ordinary course of business.

  • Owner-occupied property is property held (by the owner or by the lessee as a right-of-use asset) for use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes.

Classification of property as investment property or owner-occupied property

6.[Deleted]

7.Investment property is held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both. Therefore, an investment property generates cash flows largely independently of the other assets held by an entity. This distinguishes investment property from owner-occupied property. The production or supply of goods or services (or the use of property for administrative purposes) generates cash flows that are attributable not only to property, but also to other assets used in the production or supply process. IAS 16 applies to owned owner-occupied property and IFRS 16 applies to owner-occupied property held by a lessee as a right-of-use asset.

8.The following are examples of investment property:

  1. land held for long-term capital appreciation rather than for short-term sale in the ordinary course of business.

  2. land held for a currently undetermined future use. (If an entity has not determined that it will use the land as owner-occupied property or for short-term sale in the ordinary course of business, the land is regarded as held for capital appreciation.)

  3. a building owned by the entity (or a right-of-use asset relating to a building held by the entity) and leased out under one or more operating leases.

  4. a building that is vacant but is held to be leased out under one or more operating leases.

  5. property that is being constructed or developed for future use as investment property.

9.The following are examples of items that are not investment property and are therefore outside the scope of this Standard:

  1. property intended for sale in the ordinary course of business or in the process of construction or development for such sale (see IAS 2 Inventories), for example, property acquired exclusively with a view to subsequent disposal in the near future or for development and resale.

  2. [deleted]

  3. owner-occupied property (see IAS 16 and IFRS 16), including (among other things) property held for future use as owner-occupied property, property held for future development and subsequent use as owner-occupied property, property occupied by employees (whether or not the employees pay rent at market rates) and owner-occupied property awaiting disposal.

  4. [deleted]

  5. property that is leased to another entity under a finance lease.

10.Some properties comprise a portion that is held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation and another portion that is held for use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes. If these portions could be sold separately (or leased out separately under a finance lease), an entity accounts for the portions separately. If the portions could not be sold separately, the property is investment property only if an insignificant portion is held for use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes.

11.In some cases, an entity provides ancillary services to the occupants of a property it holds. An entity treats such a property as investment property if the services are insignificant to the arrangement as a whole. An example is when the owner of an office building provides security and maintenance services to the lessees who occupy the building.

12.In other cases, the services provided are significant. For example, if an entity owns and manages a hotel, services provided to guests are significant to the arrangement as a whole. Therefore, an owner-managed hotel is owner-occupied property, rather than investment property.

13.It may be difficult to determine whether ancillary services are so significant that a property does not qualify as investment property. For example, the owner of a hotel sometimes transfers some responsibilities to third parties under a management contract. The terms of such contracts vary widely. At one end of the spectrum, the owner's position may, in substance, be that of a passive investor. At the other end of the spectrum, the owner may simply have outsourced day-to- day functions while retaining significant exposure to variation in the cash flows generated by the operations of the hotel.

14.Judgement is needed to determine whether a property qualifies as investment property. An entity develops criteria so that it can exercise that judgement consistently in accordance with the definition of investment property and with the related guidance in paragraphs 7–13. Paragraph 75(c) requires an entity to disclose these criteria when classification is difficult.

14A.Judgement is also needed to determine whether the acquisition of investment property is the acquisition of an asset or a group of assets or a business combination within the scope of IFRS 3 Business Combinations. Reference should be made to IFRS 3 to determine whether it is a business combination. The discussion in paragraphs 7–14 of this Standard relates to whether or not property is owner-occupied property or investment property and not to determining whether or not the acquisition of property is a business combination as defined in IFRS 3. Determining whether a specific transaction meets the definition of a business combination as defined in IFRS 3 and includes an investment property as defined in this Standard requires the separate application of both Standards.

15.In some cases, an entity owns property that is leased to, and occupied by, its parent or another subsidiary. The property does not qualify as investment property in the consolidated financial statements, because the property is owner-occupied from the perspective of the group. However, from the perspective of the entity that owns it, the property is investment property if it meets the definition in paragraph 5. Therefore, the lessor treats the property as investment property in its individual financial statements.

Recognition

16.An owned investment property shall be recognised as an asset when, and only when:

  1. it is probable that the future economic benefits that are associated with the investment property will flow to the entity; and

  2. the cost of the investment property can be measured reliably.

17.An entity evaluates under this recognition principle all its investment property costs at the time they are incurred. These costs include costs incurred initially to acquire an investment property and costs incurred subsequently to add to, replace part of, or service a property.

18.Under the recognition principle in paragraph 16, an entity does not recognise in the carrying amount of an investment property the costs of the day-to-day servicing of such a property. Rather, these costs are recognised in profit or loss as incurred. Costs of day-to-day servicing are primarily the cost of labour and consumables, and may include the cost of minor parts. The purpose of these expenditures is often described as for the ‘repairs and maintenance’ of the property.

19.Parts of investment properties may have been acquired through replacement. For example, the interior walls may be replacements of original walls. Under the recognition principle, an entity recognises in the carrying amount of an investment property the cost of replacing part of an existing investment property at the time that cost is incurred if the recognition criteria are met. The carrying amount of those parts that are replaced is derecognised in accordance with the derecognition provisions of this Standard.

19A.An investment property held by a lessee as a right-of-use asset shall be recognised in accordance with IFRS 16.

Measurement at recognition

20.An owned investment property shall be measured initially at its cost. Transaction costs shall be included in the initial measurement.

21.The cost of a purchased investment property comprises its purchase price and any directly attributable expenditure. Directly attributable expenditure includes, for example, professional fees for legal services, property transfer taxes and other transaction costs.

22.[Deleted]

23.The cost of an investment property is not increased by:

  1. start-up costs (unless they are necessary to bring the property to the condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management),

  2. operating losses incurred before the investment property achieves the planned level of occupancy, or

  3. abnormal amounts of wasted material, labour or other resources incurred in constructing or developing the property.

24.If payment for an investment property is deferred, its cost is the cash price equivalent. The difference between this amount and the total payments is recognised as interest expense over the period of credit.

25.[Deleted]

26.[Deleted]

27.One or more investment properties may be acquired in exchange for a non-monetary asset or assets, or a combination of monetary and non-monetary assets. The following discussion refers to an exchange of one non-monetary asset for another, but it also applies to all exchanges described in the preceding sentence. The cost of such an investment property is measured at fair value unless (a) the exchange transaction lacks commercial substance or (b) the fair value of neither the asset received nor the asset given up is reliably measurable. The acquired asset is measured in this way even if an entity cannot immediately derecognise the asset given up. If the acquired asset is not measured at fair value, its cost is measured at the carrying amount of the asset given up.

28.An entity determines whether an exchange transaction has commercial substance by considering the extent to which its future cash flows are expected to change as a result of the transaction. An exchange transaction has commercial substance if:

  1. the configuration (risk, timing and amount) of the cash flows of the asset received differs from the configuration of the cash flows of the asset transferred, or

  2. the entity-specific value of the portion of the entity's operations affected by the transaction changes as a result of the exchange, and

  3. the difference in (a) or (b) is significant relative to the fair value of the assets exchanged.

For the purpose of determining whether an exchange transaction has commercial substance, the entity-specific value of the portion of the entity's operations affected by the transaction shall reflect post-tax cash flows. The result of these analyses may be clear without an entity having to perform detailed calculations.

29.The fair value of an asset is reliably measurable if (a) the variability in the range of reasonable fair value measurements is not significant for that asset or (b) the probabilities of the various estimates within the range can be reasonably assessed and used when measuring fair value. If the entity is able to measure reliably the fair value of either the asset received or the asset given up, then the fair value of the asset given up is used to measure cost unless the fair value of the asset received is more clearly evident.

29A.An investment property held by a lessee as a right-of-use asset shall be measured initially at its cost in accordance with IFRS 16.

Measurement after recognition

Accounting policy

30.With the exceptions noted in paragraphs 32A, an entity shall choose as its accounting policy either the fair value model in paragraphs 33–55 or the cost model in paragraph 56 and shall apply that policy to all of its investment property.

31.IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors states that a voluntary change in accounting policy shall be made only if the change results in the financial statements providing reliable and more relevant information about the effects of transactions, other events or conditions on the entity's financial position, financial performance or cash flows. It is highly unlikely that a change from the fair value model to the cost model will result in a more relevant presentation.

32.This Standard requires all entities to measure the fair value of investment property, for the purpose of either measurement (if the entity uses the fair value model) or disclosure (if it uses the cost model). An entity is encouraged, but not required, to measure the fair value of investment property on the basis of a valuation by an independent valuer who holds a recognised and relevant professional qualification and has recent experience in the location and category of the investment property being valued.

32A.An entity may:

  1. choose either the fair value model or the cost model for all investment property backing liabilities that pay a return linked directly to the fair value of, or returns from, specified assets including that investment property; and

  2. choose either the fair value model or the cost model for all other investment property, regardless of the choice made in (a).

32B.Some insurers and other entities operate an internal property fund that issues notional units, with some units held by investors in linked contracts and others held by the entity. Paragraph 32A does not permit an entity to measure the property held by the fund partly at cost and partly at fair value.

32B.1Some entities operate, either internally or externally, an investment fund that provides investors with benefits determined by units in the fund. Similarly, some entities issue insurance contracts with direct participation features, for which the underlying items include investment property. For the purposes of paragraphs 32A–32B only, insurance contracts include investment contracts with discretionary participation features. Paragraph 32A does not permit an entity to measure property held by the fund (or property that is an underlying item) partly at cost and partly at fair value. (See IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts for terms used in this paragraph that are defined in that Standard.)

This wording shall apply from 1 January 2023 in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2021/2036 [editorial remark].

Regulation (EU) 2021/2036

32C.If an entity chooses different models for the two categories described in paragraph 32A, sales of investment property between pools of assets measured using different models shall be recognised at fair value and the cumulative change in fair value shall be recognised in profit or loss. Accordingly, if an investment property is sold from a pool in which the fair value model is used into a pool in which the cost model is used, the property's fair value at the date of the sale becomes its deemed cost.

Fair value model

33.After initial recognition, an entity that chooses the fair value model shall measure all of its investment property at fair value, except in the cases described in paragraph 53.

34.[Deleted]

35.A gain or loss arising from a change in the fair value of investment property shall be recognised in profit or loss for the period in which it arises.

36–39.[Deleted]

40.When measuring the fair value of investment property in accordance with IFRS 13, an entity shall ensure that the fair value reflects, among other things, rental income from current leases and other assumptions that market participants would use when pricing investment property under current market conditions.

40A.When a lessee uses the fair value model to measure an investment property that is held as a right-of-use asset, it shall measure the right-of-use asset, and not the underlying property, at fair value.

41.IFRS 16 specifies the basis for initial recognition of the cost of an investment property held by a lessee as a right-of-use asset. Paragraph 33 requires investment property held by a lessee as a right-of-use asset to be remeasured, if necessary, to fair value if the entity chooses the fair value model. When lease payments are at market rates, the fair value of an investment property held by a lessee as a right-of-use asset at acquisition, net of all expected lease payments (including those relating to recognised lease liabilities), should be zero. Thus, remeasuring a right-of-use asset from cost in accordance with IFRS 16 to fair value in accordance with paragraph 33 (taking into account the requirements in paragraph 50) should not give rise to any initial gain or loss, unless fair value is measured at different times. This could occur when an election to apply the fair value model is made after initial recognition.

42–47.[Deleted]

48.In exceptional cases, there is clear evidence when an entity first acquires an investment property (or when an existing property first becomes investment property after a change in use) that the variability in the range of reasonable fair value measurements will be so great, and the probabilities of the various outcomes so difficult to assess, that the usefulness of a single measure of fair value is negated. This may indicate that the fair value of the property will not be reliably measurable on a continuing basis (see paragraph 53).

49.[Deleted]

50.In determining the carrying amount of investment property under the fair value model, an entity does not double-count assets or liabilities that are recognised as separate assets or liabilities. For example:

  1. equipment such as lifts or air-conditioning is often an integral part of a building and is generally included in the fair value of the investment property, rather than recognised separately as property, plant and equipment.

  2. if an office is leased on a furnished basis, the fair value of the office generally includes the fair value of the furniture, because the rental income relates to the furnished office. When furniture is included in the fair value of investment property, an entity does not recognise that furniture as a separate asset.

  3. the fair value of investment property excludes prepaid or accrued operating lease income, because the entity recognises it as a separate liability or asset.

  4. the fair value of investment property held by a lessee as a right- of-use asset reflects expected cash flows (including variable lease payments that are expected to become payable). Accordingly, if a valuation obtained for a property is net of all payments expected to be made, it will be necessary to add back any recognised lease liability, to arrive at the carrying amount of the investment property using the fair value model.

51.[Deleted]

52.In some cases, an entity expects that the present value of its payments relating to an investment property (other than payments relating to recognised liabilities) will exceed the present value of the related cash receipts. An entity applies IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets to determine whether to recognise a liability and, if so, how to measure it.

Inability to measure fair value reliably

53.There is a rebuttable presumption that an entity can reliably measure the fair value of an investment property on a continuing basis. However, in exceptional cases, there is clear evidence when an entity first acquires an investment property (or when an existing property first becomes investment property after a change in use) that the fair value of the investment property is not reliably measurable on a continuing basis. This arises when, and only when, the market for comparable properties is inactive (eg there are few recent transactions, price quotations are not current or observed transaction prices indicate that the seller was forced to sell) and alternative reliable measurements of fair value (for example, based on discounted cash flow projections) are not available. If an entity determines that the fair value of an investment property under construction is not reliably measurable but expects the fair value of the property to be reliably measurable when construction is complete, it shall measure that investment property under construction at cost until either its fair value becomes reliably measurable or construction is completed (whichever is earlier). If an entity determines that the fair value of an investment property (other than an investment property under construction) is not reliably measurable on a continuing basis, the entity shall measure that investment property using the cost model in IAS 16 for owned investment property or in accordance with IFRS 16 for investment property held by a lessee as a right-of-use asset. The residual value of the investment property shall be assumed to be zero. The entity shall continue to apply IAS 16 or IFRS 16 until disposal of the investment property.

53A.Once an entity becomes able to measure reliably the fair value of an investment property under construction that has previously been measured at cost, it shall measure that property at its fair value. Once construction of that property is complete, it is presumed that fair value can be measured reliably. If this is not the case, in accordance with paragraph 53, the property shall be accounted for using the cost model in accordance with IAS 16 for owned assets or IFRS 16 for investment property held by a lessee as a right-of-use asset.

53B.The presumption that the fair value of investment property under construction can be measured reliably can be rebutted only on initial recognition. An entity that has measured an item of investment property under construction at fair value may not conclude that the fair value of the completed investment property cannot be measured reliably.

54.In the exceptional cases when an entity is compelled, for the reason given in paragraph 53, to measure an investment property using the cost model in accordance with IAS 16 or IFRS 16, it measures at fair value all its other investment property, including investment property under construction. In these cases, although an entity may use the cost model for one investment property, the entity shall continue to account for each of the remaining properties using the fair value model.

55.If an entity has previously measured an investment property at fair value, it shall continue to measure the property at fair value until disposal (or until the property becomes owner-occupied property or the entity begins to develop the property for subsequent sale in the ordinary course of business) even if comparable market transactions become less frequent or market prices become less readily available.

Cost model

56.After initial recognition, an entity that chooses the cost model shall measure investment property:

  1. in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations if it meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale (or is included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale);

  2. in accordance with IFRS 16 if it is held by a lessee as a right- of-use asset and is not held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5; and

  3. in accordance with the requirements in IAS 16 for the cost model in all other cases.

Transfers

57.An entity shall transfer a property to, or from, investment property when, and only when, there is a change in use. A change in use occurs when the property meets, or ceases to meet, the definition of investment property and there is evidence of the change in use. In isolation, a change in management's intentions for the use of a property does not provide evidence of a change in use. Examples of evidence of a change in use include:

  1. commencement of owner-occupation, or of development with a view to owner-occupation, for a transfer from investment property to owner-occupied property;

  2. commencement of development with a view to sale, for a transfer from investment property to inventories;

  3. end of owner-occupation, for a transfer from owner-occupied property to investment property; and

  4. inception of an operating lease to another party, for a transfer from inventories to investment property.

  5. [deleted]

58.When an entity decides to dispose of an investment property without development, it continues to treat the property as an investment property until it is derecognised (eliminated from the statement of financial position) and does not reclassify it as inventory. Similarly, if an entity begins to redevelop an existing investment property for continued future use as investment property, the property remains an investment property and is not reclassified as owner-occupied property during the redevelopment.

59.Paragraphs 60–65 apply to recognition and measurement issues that arise when an entity uses the fair value model for investment property. When an entity uses the cost model, transfers between investment property, owner-occupied property and inventories do not change the carrying amount of the property transferred and they do not change the cost of that property for measurement or disclosure purposes.

60.For a transfer from investment property carried at fair value to owner-occupied property or inventories, the property's deemed cost for subsequent accounting in accordance with IAS 16, IFRS 16 or IAS 2 shall be its fair value at the date of change in use.

61.If an owner-occupied property becomes an investment property that will be carried at fair value, an entity shall apply IAS 16 for owned property and IFRS 16 for property held by a lessee as a right-of-use asset up to the date of change in use. The entity shall treat any difference at that date between the carrying amount of the property in accordance with IAS 16 or IFRS 16 and its fair value in the same way as a revaluation in accordance with IAS 16.

62.Up to the date when an owner-occupied property becomes an investment property carried at fair value, an entity depreciates the property (or the right-of-use asset) and recognises any impairment losses that have occurred. The entity treats any difference at that date between the carrying amount of the property in accordance with IAS 16 or IFRS 16 and its fair value in the same way as a revaluation in accordance with IAS 16. In other words:

  1. any resulting decrease in the carrying amount of the property is recognised in profit or loss. However, to the extent that an amount is included in revaluation surplus for that property, the decrease is recognised in other comprehensive income and reduces the revaluation surplus within equity.

  2. any resulting increase in the carrying amount is treated as follows:

    1. to the extent that the increase reverses a previous impairment loss for that property, the increase is recognised in profit or loss. The amount recognised in profit or loss does not exceed the amount needed to restore the carrying amount to the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised.

    2. any remaining part of the increase is recognised in other comprehensive income and increases the revaluation surplus within equity. On subsequent disposal of the investment property, the revaluation surplus included in equity may be transferred to retained earnings. The transfer from revaluation surplus to retained earnings is not made through profit or loss.

63.For a transfer from inventories to investment property that will be carried at fair value, any difference between the fair value of the property at that date and its previous carrying amount shall be recognised in profit or loss.

64.The treatment of transfers from inventories to investment property that will be carried at fair value is consistent with the treatment of sales of inventories.

65.When an entity completes the construction or development of a self-constructed investment property that will be carried at fair value, any difference between the fair value of the property at that date and its previous carrying amount shall be recognised in profit or loss.

Disposals

66.An investment property shall be derecognised (eliminated from the statement of financial position) on disposal or when the investment property is permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefits are expected from its disposal.

67.The disposal of an investment property may be achieved by sale or by entering into a finance lease. The date of disposal for investment property that is sold is the date the recipient obtains control of the investment property in accordance with the requirements for determining when a performance obligation is satisfied in IFRS 15. IFRS 16 applies to a disposal effected by entering into a finance lease and to a sale and leaseback.

68.If, in accordance with the recognition principle in paragraph 16, an entity recognises in the carrying amount of an asset the cost of a replacement for part of an investment property, it derecognises the carrying amount of the replaced part. For investment property accounted for using the cost model, a replaced part may not be a part that was depreciated separately. If it is not practicable for an entity to determine the carrying amount of the replaced part, it may use the cost of the replacement as an indication of what the cost of the replaced part was at the time it was acquired or constructed. Under the fair value model, the fair value of the investment property may already reflect that the part to be replaced has lost its value. In other cases it may be difficult to discern how much fair value should be reduced for the part being replaced. An alternative to reducing fair value for the replaced part, when it is not practical to do so, is to include the cost of the replacement in the carrying amount of the asset and then to reassess the fair value, as would be required for additions not involving replacement.

69.Gains or losses arising from the retirement or disposal of investment property shall be determined as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and shall be recognised in profit or loss (unless IFRS 16 requires otherwise on a sale and leaseback) in the period of the retirement or disposal.

70.The amount of consideration to be included in the gain or loss arising from the derecognition of an investment property is determined in accordance with the requirements for determining the transaction price in paragraphs 47–72 of IFRS 15. Subsequent changes to the estimated amount of the consideration included in the gain or loss shall be accounted for in accordance with the requirements for changes in the transaction price in IFRS 15.

71.An entity applies IAS 37 or other Standards, as appropriate, to any liabilities that it retains after disposal of an investment property.

72.Compensation from third parties for investment property that was impaired, lost or given up shall be recognised in profit or loss when the compensation becomes receivable.

73.Impairments or losses of investment property, related claims for or payments of compensation from third parties and any subsequent purchase or construction of replacement assets are separate economic events and are accounted for separately as follows:

  1. impairments of investment property are recognised in accordance with IAS 36;

  2. retirements or disposals of investment property are recognised in accordance with paragraphs 66–71 of this Standard;

  3. compensation from third parties for investment property that was impaired, lost or given up is recognised in profit or loss when it becomes receivable; and

  4. the cost of assets restored, purchased or constructed as replacements is determined in accordance with paragraphs 20–29 of this Standard.

Disclosure

Fair value model and cost model

74.The disclosures below apply in addition to those in IFRS 16. In accordance with IFRS 16, the owner of an investment property provides lessors' disclosures about leases into which it has entered. A lessee that holds an investment property as a right-of-use asset provides lessees' disclosures as required by IFRS 16 and lessors' disclosures as required by IFRS 16 for any operating leases into which it has entered.

75.An entity shall disclose:

  1. whether it applies the fair value model or the cost model.

  2. [deleted]

  3. when classification is difficult (see paragraph 14), the criteria it uses to distinguish investment property from owner-occupied property and from property held for sale in the ordinary course of business.

  4. [deleted]

  5. the extent to which the fair value of investment property (as measured or disclosed in the financial statements) is based on a valuation by an independent valuer who holds a recognised and relevant professional qualification and has recent experience in the location and category of the investment property being valued. If there has been no such valuation, that fact shall be disclosed.

  6. the amounts recognised in profit or loss for:

    1. rental income from investment property;

    2. direct operating expenses (including repairs and maintenance) arising from investment property that generated rental income during the period;

    3. direct operating expenses (including repairs and maintenance) arising from investment property that did not generate rental income during the period; and

    4. the cumulative change in fair value recognised in profit or loss on a sale of investment property from a pool of assets in which the cost model is used into a pool in which the fair value model is used (see paragraph 32C).

  7. the existence and amounts of restrictions on the realisability of investment property or the remittance of income and proceeds of disposal.

  8. contractual obligations to purchase, construct or develop investment property or for repairs, maintenance or enhancements.

Fair value model

76.In addition to the disclosures required by paragraph 75, an entity that applies the fair value model in paragraphs 33–55 shall disclose a reconciliation between the carrying amounts of investment property at the beginning and end of the period, showing the following:

  1. additions, disclosing separately those additions resulting from acquisitions and those resulting from subsequent expenditure recognised in the carrying amount of an asset;

  2. additions resulting from acquisitions through business combinations;

  3. assets classified as held for sale or included in a disposal group classified as held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5 and other disposals;

  4. net gains or losses from fair value adjustments;

  5. the net exchange differences arising on the translation of the financial statements into a different presentation currency, and on translation of a foreign operation into the presentation currency of the reporting entity;

  6. transfers to and from inventories and owner-occupied property; and

  7. other changes.

77.When a valuation obtained for investment property is adjusted significantly for the purpose of the financial statements, for example to avoid double-counting of assets or liabilities that are recognised as separate assets and liabilities as described in paragraph 50, the entity shall disclose a reconciliation between the valuation obtained and the adjusted valuation included in the financial statements, showing separately the aggregate amount of any recognised lease liabilities that have been added back, and any other significant adjustments.

78.In the exceptional cases referred to in paragraph 53, when an entity measures investment property using the cost model in IAS 16 or in accordance with IFRS 16, the reconciliation required by paragraph 76 shall disclose amounts relating to that investment property separately from amounts relating to other investment property. In addition, an entity shall disclose:

  1. a description of the investment property;

  2. an explanation of why fair value cannot be measured reliably;

  3. if possible, the range of estimates within which fair value is highly likely to lie; and

  4. on disposal of investment property not carried at fair value:

    1. the fact that the entity has disposed of investment property not carried at fair value;

    2. the carrying amount of that investment property at the time of sale; and

    3. the amount of gain or loss recognised.

Cost model

79,In addition to the disclosures required by paragraph 75, an entity that applies the cost model in paragraph 56 shall disclose:

  1. the depreciation methods used;

  2. the useful lives or the depreciation rates used;

  3. the gross carrying amount and the accumulated depreciation (aggregated with accumulated impairment losses) at the beginning and end of the period;

  4. a reconciliation of the carrying amount of investment property at the beginning and end of the period, showing the following:

    1. additions, disclosing separately those additions resulting from acquisitions and those resulting from subsequent expenditure recognised as an asset;

    2. additions resulting from acquisitions through business combinations;

    3. assets classified as held for sale or included in a disposal group classified as held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5 and other disposals;

    4. depreciation;

    5. the amount of impairment losses recognised, and the amount of impairment losses reversed, during the period in accordance with IAS 36;

    6. the net exchange differences arising on the translation of the financial statements into a different presentation currency, and on translation of a foreign operation into the presentation currency of the reporting entity;

    7. transfers to and from inventories and owner-occupied property; and

    8. other changes.

  5. the fair value of investment property. In the exceptional cases described in paragraph 53, when an entity cannot measure the fair value of the investment property reliably, it shall disclose:

    1. a description of the investment property;

    2. an explanation of why fair value cannot be measured reliably; and

    3. if possible, the range of estimates within which fair value is highly likely to lie.

Transitional provisions

Fair value model

80.An entity that has previously applied IAS 40 (2000) and elects for the first time to classify and account for some or all eligible property interests held under operating leases as investment property shall recognise the effect of that election as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings for the period in which the election is first made. In addition:

  1. if the entity has previously disclosed publicly (in financial statements or otherwise) the fair value of those property interests in earlier periods (measured on a basis that satisfies the definition of fair value in IFRS 13), the entity is encouraged, but not required:

    1. to adjust the opening balance of retained earnings for the earliest period presented for which such fair value was disclosed publicly; and

    2. to restate comparative information for those periods; and

  2. if the entity has not previously disclosed publicly the information described in (a), it shall not restate comparative information and shall disclose that fact.

81.This Standard requires a treatment different from that required by IAS 8. IAS 8 requires comparative information to be restated unless such restatement is impracticable.

82.When an entity first applies this Standard, the adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings includes the reclassification of any amount held in revaluation surplus for investment property.

Cost model

83.IAS 8 applies to any change in accounting policies that is made when an entity first applies this Standard and chooses to use the cost model. The effect of the change in accounting policies includes the reclassification of any amount held in revaluation surplus for investment property.

84.The requirements of paragraphs 27–29 regarding the initial measurement of an investment property acquired in an exchange of assets transaction shall be applied prospectively only to future transactions.

Business Combinations

84A.Annual Improvements Cycle 2011–2013 issued in December 2013 added paragraph 14A and a heading before paragraph 6. An entity shall apply that amendment prospectively for acquisitions of investment property from the beginning of the first period for which it adopts that amendment. Consequently, accounting for acquisitions of investment property in prior periods shall not be adjusted. However, an entity may choose to apply the amendment to individual acquisitions of investment property that occurred prior to the beginning of the first annual period occurring on or after the effective date if, and only if, information needed to apply the amendment to those earlier transactions is available to the entity.

IFRS 16

84B.An entity applying IFRS 16, and its related amendments to this Standard, for the first time shall apply the transition requirements in Appendix C of IFRS 16 to its investment property held as a right-of-use asset.

Transfers of investment property

84C.Transfers of Investment Property (Amendments to IAS 40), issued in December 2016, amended paragraphs 57–58. An entity shall apply those amendments to changes in use that occur on or after the beginning of the annual reporting period in which the entity first applies the amendments (the date of initial application). At the date of initial application, an entity shall reassess the classification of property held at that date and, if applicable, reclassify property applying paragraphs 7–14 to reflect the conditions that exist at that date.

84D.Notwithstanding the requirements in paragraph 84C, an entity is permitted to apply the amendments to paragraphs 57–58 retrospectively in accordance with IAS 8 if, and only if, that is possible without the use of hindsight.

84E.If, in accordance with paragraph 84C, an entity reclassifies property at the date of initial application, the entity shall:

  1. account for the reclassification applying the requirements in paragraphs 59–64. In applying paragraphs 59–64, an entity shall:

    1. read any reference to the date of change in use as the date of initial application; and

    2. recognise any amount that, in accordance with paragraphs 59–64, would have been recognised in profit or loss as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings at the date of initial application.

  2. disclose the amounts reclassified to, or from, investment property in accordance with paragraph 84C. The entity shall disclose those amounts reclassified as part of the reconciliation of the carrying amount of investment property at the beginning and end of the period as required by paragraphs 76 and 79.

Effective date

85.An entity shall apply this Standard for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005. Earlier application is encouraged. If an entity applies this Standard for a period beginning before 1 January 2005, it shall disclose that fact.

85A.IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements (as revised in 2007) amended the terminology used throughout IFRSs. In addition it amended paragraph 62. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. If an entity applies IAS 1 (revised 2007) for an earlier period, the amendments shall be applied for that earlier period.

85B.Paragraphs 8, 9, 48, 53, 54 and 57 were amended, paragraph 22 was deleted and paragraphs 53A and 53B were added by Improvements to IFRSs issued in May 2008. An entity shall apply those amendments prospectively for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. An entity is permitted to apply the amendments to investment property under construction from any date before 1 January 2009 provided that the fair values of investment properties under construction were measured at those dates. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies the amendments for an earlier period it shall disclose that fact and at the same time apply the amendments to paragraphs 5 and 81E of IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment.

85C.IFRS 13, issued in May 2011, amended the definition of fair value in paragraph 5, amended paragraphs 26, 29, 32, 40, 48, 53, 53B, 78–80 and 85B and deleted paragraphs 36–39, 42–47, 49, 51 and 75(d). An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 13.

85D.Annual Improvements Cycle 2011–2013 issued in December 2013 added headings before paragraph 6 and after paragraph 84 and added paragraphs 14A and 84A. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 July 2014. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies those amendments for an earlier period it shall disclose that fact.

85E.IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers, issued in May 2014, amended paragraphs 3(b), 9, 67 and 70. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 15.

85F.IFRS 16, issued in January 2016, amended the scope of IAS 40 by defining investment property to include both owned investment property and property held by a lessee as a right-of-use asset. IFRS 16 amended paragraphs 5, 7, 8, 9, 16, 20, 30, 41, 50, 53, 53A, 54, 56, 60, 61, 62, 67, 69, 74, 75, 77 and 78, added paragraphs 19A, 29A, 40A and 84B and its related heading and deleted paragraphs 3, 6, 25, 26 and 34. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 16.

85G.Transfers of Investment Property (Amendments to IAS 40), issued in December 2016, amended paragraphs 57–58 and added paragraphs 84C–84E. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies those amendments for an earlier period, it shall disclose that fact.

85H.IFRS 17, issued in May 2017, amended paragraph 32B. An entity shall apply that amendment when it applies IFRS 172.

IFRS 17 shall be applied at the latest for financial years beginning on or after 1 January 2023 in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2021/2036 [editorial remark].

Regulation (EU) 2021/2036

Withdrawal of IAS 40 (2000)

86.This Standard supersedes IAS 40 Investment Property (issued in 2000).